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Korean Journal of Anesthesiology 2000;38(1):123-129.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4097/kjae.2000.38.1.123   
Neuromuscular Blocking and Vagolytic Effects of Atracurium, Cisatracurium, and Mivacurium in the Anesthetized Cat.
Mi Yong Choi, Yon Hee Shim, Yang Sik Shin, Hee Koo Yoo, Jong Jin Lee
1Department of Ansthesiology, Jeseng Hospital.
2Yonsei University College of Medicine.
3Hanyang University College of Medicine.
Atracurium is a benzylisoquinolium nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug. It releases histamine upon the rapid administration of more than 2 x ED95. Cisatracurium is about three to four times more potent than atracurium, less likely to release histamine, and has weaker cardiovascular or autonomic effects. Mivacurium releases histamine to about the same degree as atracurium at the same dose. This study was undertaken to reevaluate the experimental model for the evaluation of effects on the autonomic nervous system, and to determine the neuromuscular blocking profiles and the vagolytic effects of atracurium, cisatracurium and mivacurium in cats.
Cats, either sex, anesthetized with pentobarbital, were used. Neuromuscular blocking effects were assessed using the effects on the anterior tibialis muscle twitch evoked with supramaximal stimuli (0.2 ms-duration, 0.1 Hz). Inhibition of the parasympathetic nervous system was assessed in response to bradycardia to vagal nerve stimulation with ten-second trains of square-waves (0.5 ms-duration, 20 Hz). The dose-response curves for both neuromuscular blocking and vagolytic actions were determined for each animal. The dose-response curves were constructed in cumulative fashion. The response for vagal stimuli was measured two minute after each dosing. Vagal ID50 (The doses that produced 50% inhibition of the response to vagus nerve stimulation) were determined.
NMB ED95 and NMB ED50, respectively, were 102.0 +/- 28.3 and 143.7 +/- 40.5 microgram/kg for atracurium, 81.4 +/- 13.3 and 110.7 +/- 18.8 microgram/kg for cisatracurium, and 56.8 +/- 17.4 and 74.2 +/- 25.0 microgram/kg for mivacurium. Vagal ID50 was 2,654 +/- 1,651 microgram/kg for atracurium, 655 +/- 389 microgram/kg for cisatracurium, and 606 +/- 182 microgram/kg for mivacurium. The vagal ID50/NMB ED95 and vagal ID50/NMB ED50 were 18.5 and 26.0 for atracurium, 5.9 and 8.1 for cisatracurium, and 8.2 and 10.7 for mivacurium.
Atracurium has a wider margin of safety only for vagal stimulation as compared with cisatracurium and mivacurium. However, we couldn't exclude that either sympathetic stimulation or histamine release might contribute to heart rate.
Key Words: Neuromuscular relaxants: atracurium; cisatracurium; mivacurium; Parasympathetic nervous system: vagus; Pharmacology: dose-response curve


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