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For the policies on research and publication ethics that are not stated in these instructions, the Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals, available at: www.kamje.or.kr/intro.php?body=publishing_ethics, or the Guidelines on Good Publication, available at: publicationethics.org/, can be applied.

1. Conflict-of-interest statement
Conflict of interest exists when an author or the author’s institution, reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships that inappropriately influence or bias his or her actions. Such relationships are also known as dual commitments, competing interests, or competing loyalties. These relationships vary from being negligible to having a great potential for influencing judgment. Not all relationships represent true conflict of interest. On the other hand, the potential for conflict of interest can exist regardless of whether an individual believes that the relationship affects his or her scientific judgment. Financial relationships such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, and paid expert testimony are the most easily identifiable conflicts of interest and the most likely to undermine the credibility of the journal, the authors, or of the science itself. Conflicts can occur for other reasons as well, such as personal relationships, academic competition, and intellectual passion (www.icmje.org/conflicts-of-interest/). If there are any conflicts of interest, authors should disclose them in the manuscript. The conflicts of interest may occur during the research process as well; however, it is important to provide disclosure. If there is a disclosure, editors, reviewers, and reader can approach the manuscript after understanding the situation and the background of the completed research.
2. Statement of informed consent and Institutional Review Board approval
If the study in the article is on human subjects or human-originated material, informed consent for the study and the IRB approval number needs to be provided. Copies of written informed consents and Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval for clinical research should be kept. If necessary, the editor or reviewers may request copies of these documents to make potential ethical issues clear.
3. Statement of human and animal right
Clinical research should be done in accordance of the Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects, outlined in the Helsinki Declaration of 1975 (revised 2018) (available from:https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involving-human-subjects/) Clinical studies that do not meet the Helsinki Declaration will not be considered for publication. Human subjects should not be identifiable, such that patients' names, initials, hospital numbers, dates of birth, or other protected healthcare information should not be disclosed. For animal subjects, research should be performed based on the National or Institutional Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the ethical treatment of all experimental animals should be maintained.
4. Registration of the clinical trial research
Any researches that deals with clinical trial should be registered with the primary national clinical trial registration site such as Korea Clinical Research Information Service (cris.nih.go.kr/) or other sites accredited by WHO or International Committee of Medical Journal Editor such as ClinicalTrials.gov (clinicaltrials.gov/).
5. Reporting guidelines
The KJA recommends a submitted manuscript to follow reporting guidelines appropriate for various study types. Good sources for reporting guidelines are the EQUATOR Network (www.equatornetwork.org/) and the U.S. National Library of Medicine’s (NLM's) Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives (www.nlm.nih.gov/services/research_report_guide.html).
6. Authorship
Authorship credit should be based on: 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; AND 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND 3) final approval of the version to be published; AND 4) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Authors should meet these 4 conditions. If the number of authors is equal to or greater than 2, there should be a list of each author's role in the submitted paper. Authors are obliged to participate in peer review process. All others who contributed to the work who are not authors should be named in the Acknowledgements section. KJA has a strict policy on changes to authorship after acceptance of the article and will only consider changes in the most extraordinary situations once the article is accepted.
7. Plagiarism and duplicate publication
Plagiarism is the use of previously published material without attribution. The KJA editorial office screens all submitted manuscripts for plagiarism, using a sophisticated software program, prior to peer review. When plagiarism is detected at any time before publication, the KJA editorial office will take appropriate action as directed by the standards set forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). For additional information, please visit http://www.publicationethics.org. It is mandatory for all authors to resolve any copyright issues when citing a figure or table from a different journal that is not open access.
8. Secondary publication
It is possible to republish manuscripts if the manuscripts satisfy the condition of secondary publication of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, available at: www.icmje.org/.
9. Feedback after publication
If the authors or readers find any errors, or contents that should be revised, it can be requested from the Editorial Board. The Editorial Board may consider erratum, corrigendum or a retraction. If there are any revisions to the article, there will be a CrossMark description to announce the final draft. If there is a reader’s opinion on the published article with the form of Letter to the editor, it will be forwarded to the authors. The authors can reply to the reader’s letter. Letter to the editor and the author’s reply may be also published.
9-1. Process to manage the research and publication misconduct
When the Journal faces suspected cases of research and publication misconduct such as a redundant (duplicate) publication, plagiarism, fabricated data, changes in authorship, undisclosed conflicts of interest, an ethical problem discovered with the submitted manuscript, a reviewer who has appropriated an author’s idea or data, complaints against editors, and other issues, the resolving process will follow the flowchart provided by the Committee on Publication Ethics (http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts). The Editorial Board of KJA will discuss the suspected cases and reach a decision. KJA will not hesitate to publish errata, corrigenda, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed.
9-2. Policy of Article withdrawal, retraction, and replacement
  • 1) Article withdrawal
    Articles in Press (articles that have been accepted for publication but which have not been formally published and will not yet have the complete volume/issue/page information) that include errors, or are discovered to be accidental duplicates of other published article(s), or are determined to violate our journal publishing ethics guidelines in the view of the editors (such as multiple submission, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data or the like), may be “Withdrawn”.
  • 2) Article retraction
    Errors serious enough to invalidate a paper's results and conclusions (Infringements of professional ethical codes, such as multiple submission, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data or the like) may require retraction.
  • 3) Article replacement
    Replacement (retraction with republication) can be considered in cases where honest error (e.g., a misclassification or miscalculation) leads to a major change in the direction or significance of the results, interpretations, and conclusions. If the error is judged to be unintentional, the underlying science appears valid, and the changed version of the paper survives further review and editorial scrutiny, then replacement of the changed paper, with an explanation, allows full correction of the scientific literature.
    See also the National Library of Medicine's policy on retractions and the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) concerning corrections and retractions, or https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines.
9-3. Appeals and complaints
KJA adheres to COPE guidelines regarding appeals to editorial decisions and complaints. For additional information, please visit https://publicationethics.org/core-practices.
10. Data sharing statement
KJA accepts the ICMJE Recommendations for data sharing statement policy (http://icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf). All manuscripts reporting clinical trial results should submit a data sharing statement following the ICMJE guidelines from 1 July 2018. Authors may refer to the editorial, “Data Sharing statements for Clinical Trials: A Requirement of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors,” in Annals on 6 June 2017 (http://www.icmje.org/news-and-editorials/data_sharing_june_2017.pdf).
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