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Korean J Anesthesiol > Volume 49(4); 2005 > Article
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology 2005;49(4):502-506.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4097/kjae.2005.49.4.502   
The Effect of Ketamine and Fentanyl on the Incidence of Emergence Agitation after Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Children undergoing Tonsillectomy.
Hyun Jeong Kwak, Jong Yeop Kim, Jae Hyung Kim, Yeui Seok Kim, Sung Yong Park
1Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gil Medical Center, Gachon Medical School, Incheon, Korea.
2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, College of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea. anseajou@paran.com
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Sevoflurane anesthesia is associated with emergence agitation in children. This study examined the effect of a single intraoperative dose of ketamine and fentanyl on emergence agitation in children undergoing an adenotonsillectomy.
METHODS
Ninety children, 3-10 years old, undergoing an adenotonsillectomy were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either normal saline (control group), ketamine 1 mg/kg (group K), or fentanyl 1microgram/kg (group F) after inducing anesthesia. Ketorolac 0.5 mg/kg was used for postoperative analgesia, and the anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane. The recovery characteristics, including the time to extubation, the discharge time from the PACU, agitation, pain, and vomiting were assessed.
RESULTS
There were no significant differences between the three groups regarding the time to extubation and discharge from the PACU. The incidence of emergence agitation in the control group, group K, and group F was 46.7%, 13.3%, and 33.3%, respectively. The incidence of emergence agitation and the pain score were significantly lower in group K than in the control group (P<0.05). The incidence of vomiting was similar in the three groups.
CONCLUSIONS
Children undergoing tonsillectomy with sevoflurane and 1 mg/kg of ketamine given after induction had a reduced incidence of emergence agitation without a delay in recovery. However 1microgram/kg of fentanyl had no effect on the incidence of emergence agitation.
Key Words: emergence agitation; fentanyl; ketamine; sevoflurane
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