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Korean J Anesthesiol > Volume 47(3); 2004 > Article
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology 2004;47(3):341-346.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4097/kjae.2004.47.3.341   
The Effects of Music on Maternal Anxiety and the Evaluation of Explicit and Implicit Memory during Cesarean Section.
Seung Yun Lee, Jeong Ae Lim, Nam Sik Woo, Ye Chul Lee, Young Suk Choi, Hi Jin Park, Hae Kyung Kim, Young Su Lim
1Departments of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Korea. limJA@kkucc.konkuk.ac.kr
2Departments of Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Korea.
3Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, College of Medicine, Ulsan University, Gangneung, Korea.
4Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, College of Medicine, Konyang University, Daejeon, Korea.
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Music is widely used to help a patient relax, and divert their attention from unpleasant and stressful situations. In addition, it eliminates the noise in the operating room. A light level of general anesthesia for a cesarean section is usually applied to the mother to improve the fetal safety. Therefore, there is an increased incidence of maternal explicit and implicit memory with the bispectral index (BIS) monitoring.
METHODS
Fifty patients undergoing a cesarean section under general anesthesia were allocated randomly to either a control group (group 1) or a music group (group 2). Patients in group 2 listened to music with a headphone during the procedure. The blood pressure, heart rate, intraoperative awareness, postoperative explicit and implicit memory and the plasma cortisol level were assessed.
RESULTS
The systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower in group 2 than group 1 at 1 minute before intubation and 5 minutes after extubation (P <0.05). The BIS value were significantly lower in group 2 than group 1 at 1 minute after intubation and 10 minutes after delivery (P <0.05). The hit ratios of the implicit of memorial test were significantly higher in the group 2 (2.4 +/- 0.7) than in group 1 (1.6 +/- 0.4) (P <0.05). The hits of the implicit memorial test had no corresponding BIS value (P <0.05). The plasma cortisol level was significantly higher group 1 than in group 2 at 30 minutes after intubation and 10 minutes after arriving at the recovery room (P <0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
It was found that the music played to the mother during a cesarean section under general anesthesia decreased the anxiety and stress response, and this technique may help protect patients from unwanted explicit and implicit memory.
Key Words: anxiety; explicit memory; implicit memory; music
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