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Korean Journal of Anesthesiology 2000;38(1):49-57.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4097/kjae.2000.38.1.49   
Comparison of Intrathecal Meperidine, Fentanyl, or Placebo Added to 0.5% Hyperbaric Bupivacaine for Cesarean Section.
Joon Hyeuk Choi, Myoung Hoon Kong, Sang Ho Lim, Mi Kyoung Lee
Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.
The addition of various opioids to 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecally seems to potentiate analgesic effects of bupivacaine and to prolong the duration of analgesia. We compared the effect of intrathecal meperidine 0.25 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg, fentanyl 0.15 microgram/kg, and placebo when administered together with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 9 mg for cesarean section.
Forty-four healthy term parturients were randomly allocated (n = 11 per group) to receive the test solution (1 ml) containing preservative-free normal saline (control group), fentanyl 0.15 microgram/kg, meperidine 0.25 mg/kg, or meperidine 0.5 mg/kg intrathecally, immediately followed by the injection of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 9 mg. We observed the effective postoperative analgesic duration (time to VAS > or = 4), quality of anesthesia and side effects.
The effective postoperative analgesic duration significantly increased in the groups receiving opioid compared with the control group (P < 0.05); control group 101.4 +/- 28.6 min; fentanyl group 192.3 +/- 29.2 min; meperidine 0.25 mg/kg group 208.8 +/- 21.7 min; meperidine 0.5 mg/kg group 289.8 53.6 min (data expressed as mean +/- SD). The quality of anesthesia was excellent in 100% of the meperidine group but in 82% of the fentanyl group and 91% of the control group. The incidence of nausea and vomiting were higher in the meperidine 0.5 mg/kg group (73%) than in the remaining groups (P < 0.05).
The addition of fentanyl 0.15 microgram/kg or meperidine 0.25 mg/kg to 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 9 mg for spinal anesthesia improves intraoperative analgesia and provides analgesia into the immediate postoperative period with no adverse effects on mother or neonate.
Key Words: Analgesics, opioid: fentanyl; meperidine; Anesthetics, local: bupivacaine; Anesthetic techniques: spinal; Surgery, obstetrics: cesarean section


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