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Korean Journal of Anesthesiology 1979;12(2):121-128.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4097/kjae.1979.12.2.121   
The Effect of Ketamine on the Intestinal Motility of the Chicken .
Shin Ok Koh, Jong Rae Kim, Kwang Won Park, Won Joon Kim
1Department of Anesthesiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
2Department of Pharmacology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
In the late 1950, Greifenstein and associates have studied the properties of phenylcyelohexylamine derivatives and reported that these chemicals produced amnesia, analgesia, catatonia and catalepsy. Phencyclidine was the first of these drugs used in clinical anesthesia, but convulsive movement as well as excitatory behavior discouraged the use of the agent in human beings. Continued research for a more suitable derivative of phencyclidine with similar analgesic action, but shorter duratoin and lesser psychotomimetic action led McCarthy and Chen to investigate the pharmacologic properties of a large series of compounds. One of these, 2-ochlorophenylcyclohexylamine, was shown to have some advantages. Ketamine hydrochloride, chemically related to both phencyclidine and cyclohexylamine, proved to be more satisfactory for clinical anesthesia. Clinical investigations were begun in 1965 by Dominos group who first termed it dissociative anesthesia. As noted by Pender, the clinical signs of anesthesia with ketamine are completely different from those seen with conventional intravenous agents and gaseous compounds. Ketamine acts rapidly on intravenous or intramuscular administration to produce a state chracterized by catalepsy, analgesia and amnesia. It is devoid of sedation, hypnotic or convulsive properties. Normal pharyngeal-laryngeal reflexes are maintained and skeletal tone remains normal or increased. Since the introduction of ketamine by Domino's group, numerous reports have appeared to explain various aspects of the cardiovascular response(increased cardiac output, hypertention, little or no change in peripheral resistance) and respiratory response. However there are few reports on the effect of ketamine on intestinal motility. Thus we have made a study to observe the effect of ketamine on the intestinal motility of chickens. Strips of isolated muscle, 1 cm long, from adult fowl weighing l.2-1.5 kg and isolated smooth muscle of a patient with stomach cancer, were suspended in a muscle chamber containing Tyrode's solution into which was bubbled oxygen gas. The solution was. kept constant at 38 degrees C and contraction of the preparations was recorded on a polygraph. After being washed several times with fresh solution, the muscle strips attained constant motility and tonus. Ketamine and other drugs were added in various concentrations to the chamber. The results are as follows: 1) Ketamine did not exert any effect on human intestinal motility. It relaxed fowl intestinal muscle strips and potentiated the effect of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and isoproterenol. 2) The relaxing effects of ketamine on fowl intestinal muscle strips were not abolished by adrenergic blocking agents. 3) Ketamine demonstrated anticholinergic effect on the intestinal motility of the human and fowl. From the above results, it may be concluded that ketamine exerts a anticholinergic effect and depressant effect on intestinal motility of fowl without relation to adrenergic receptors.


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