Korean Journal of Anesthesiology



Case Report
Korean J Anesthesiol. 1995;29(5):740-745.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4097/kjae.1995.29.5.740
Temperature Maintenance during General Anesthesia for a Patient with Cold Agglutinin Hemolytic Anemmia .
Mi Sook Gwak, Dae Seog Heo, Kook Hyun Lee
Department of Anesthesiology, Internal Medicine, Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Cold hemagglutinin disease is a form of immune hemolytic anemia caused by cold-reactive immunoglobulins. Cold agglutinins are autoantibodies, usually of the IgM type, that cause red blood cell agglutination at reduced temperatures. When the agglutinated antibody-covered red blood cells return to the central circulation, the classical complement pathway is activated. Complement components combine with the antibody-covered red blood cells, inducing membrane changes that result in intravascular hemolysis. Clinical manifestations of cold hemagglutinin disease, which occur only on cold exposure include acrocyanosis, purpura, Raynauds phenomenon, acral gangrene, immune complex nephritis, and hemolytic anemia. We experienced a case of 66-year-old woman with cold agglutinin disease, gastric cancer and gall bladder stone. Preoperative plasmapheresis and intraoperative forced air convective warming to minimize red blood cell agglutination and hemolysis were performed. The operating room was prewarmed to 31~32degrees C. The patient had her lower body and the upper extremities covered with warming blankets. Inspired gases were humidified at 37degrees C and intravenous fluids were warmed with a blood warmer. Peripheral body temperature was maintained above 36.5degrees C throughout the procedure. Subtotal gastrectomy and cholecystectomy were done successfully without complication. It can be concluded that the maintenance of central and peripheral body temperature above the thermal aetivity of the cold agglutinin is required during the perioperative period.

Keywords :Cold agglutinin hemolytic anemia;Temperature maintenance;General anesthesia

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