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Korean J Anesthesiol > Volume 47(1); 2004 > Article
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology 2004;47(1):64-68.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4097/kjae.2004.47.1.64   
The Incidence and Severity of Venous Air Embolism Determined by Transesophaseal Echocardiography in Hepatic Resection Using a Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator Dong.
Dong Chul Lee, Hae Keum Kil, Jin Seob Choi, Yong Woo Hong, Sueng Teck Joo, Bon Nyeo Koo
1Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
2Anesthesia & Pain Research Institute, Seoul, Korea. koobn@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr
3Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
4Department of Anesthesiology, Gachon Medical School, Incheon, Korea.
A new technique resecting the hepatic parenchyma without inflow occlusion using a Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator (CUSA(R) ) reduces intraoperative blood loss and perioperative morbidity. This study was designed to identify the incidence and severity of venous air embolism (VAE) using transesophaseal echocardiography (TEE) in hepatic resection using CUSA(R) .
Forty patients undergoing hepatic resection using CUSA(R) of ASA class 1 and 2 were selected. After insertion of an epidural catheter for postoperative analgesia, all patients were anesthetized with sevoflurane in 50% air/O2. After the induction of anesthesia, A TEE probe was inserted into the esophagus. Blood pressure, heart rate, central venous pressure, end tidal CO2, and arterial carbon dioxide tension were recorded after induction, and during and after hepatic resection. During hepatic resection, an anesthesiologist evaluated the degree of VAE by transesophageal echocardiography in the 4-chamber view.
The mean time of using CUSA(R) was 65.3 +/- 24.4 minutes. Of 40 patients, 9 had VAE grade I, 14 grade II, 14 grade III, and 3 grade IV. However, no significant difference was observed in hemodynamics or PaCO2 after induction, or during or after hepatic resection. The mean amount of blood loss was 887.0 ml +/- 598.8 ml and the mean transfused amount was 123.1 +/- 351.3 ml.
All patients showed air embolism during hepatic resection with CUSA(R) . Serious complications associated with air embolism would occur in patients with an undiagnosed intracardiac right to left shunt. Therefore, meticulous monitoring by transesophageal echocardiography might be recommended in hepatic resection with CUSA(R) .
Key Words: air bubbles; CUSA; hepatic resection; transesophageal echocardiography
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