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Korean Journal of Anesthesiology 2001;40(2):261-264.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4097/kjae.2001.40.2.261   
The Two Step Fiberoptic Approach in the Management of a Difficult Pediatric Airway due to a Vallecular Cyst.
Soo Hwan Kim, Wyun Kon Park, Hong Shik Choi, Kyoung Mi Oh, Sung Jin Hong
1Department of Anesthesiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
A 6-yr-old male weighing 20 kg with the diagnosis of a large vallecular cyst in the oropharynx was scheduled for surgical excision. After a slight loss of consciousness following an IV injection of ketamine 10 mg while maintaining spontaneous respiration, 4% lidocaine was sprayed into the right nostril. An uncuffed 4 mm OD wire-reinforced endotracheal tube was advanced through the right nostril and positioned in the nasopharynx. An ultrathin 60 cm Olympus LF-P fiberoptic bronchoscope (OD: 2.2 mm) was threaded and the vocal cords and surrounding structures were identified as intact. The endotracheal tube and fiberscope were withdrawn. Ketamine 10 mg was injected intravenously again. Following direct insertion of an Olympus fiberoptic bronchoscope (OD: 3.8 mm) through the right nostril without tube placement and visualization of the vocal cords, topical anesthesia of the larynx was achieved by spraying 1 ml 2% lidocaine through the biopsy channel. Thirty seconds later, it was passed into the trachea and 1 ml 2% lidocaine was sprayed intratracheally. The bronchoscope was withdrawn. The 4 mm uncuffed wire-reinforced tube was passed again through the right nostril and an ultrathin fiberoptic bronchoscope (OD: 2.2 mm) was threaded over the tube, and passed smoothly without resistance. There was neither laryngeal spasm nor cough. Anesthesia was maintained with enflurane 2.0 vol%, N2O (1.5 L/min) and O2 (1.5 L/min). The mass was successfully excised and extubated without compromise. The patient was uneventfully discharged the next day.
Key Words: Anesthetics, intravenous: ketamine; Anesthetic techniques: pediatric fiberoptic intubation; Intubation, tracheal: difficult
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