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Korean Journal of Anesthesiology 2001;40(5):645-654.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4097/kjae.2001.40.5.645   
Studies of Interaction between Hexamethonium and Lidocaine, alpha-Bungarotoxin or Decamethonium in Vitro.
Jeong Seok Lee, Dae Geun Jeon, Sung Yell Kim, Sae Jin Choi
1Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, Soon Chun Hyang University, Seoul, Korea.
2Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea.
Interactions of neuromuscular blocking agents are antagonistic in a combination of depolarizing and nondepolarizing agents, additive in a combination of relative two compounds or synergistic in a combination of different two nondepolarizing agents. However, the interactions of neuromuscular blocking agents with a different site of action from each other have not been studied clearly. This study was designed to examine the interaction between hexamethonium and lidocaine, alpha-bungarotoxin or decamethonium with markedly different pre and postsynaptic sites of action.
Square wave, 0.1 Hz supramaximal stimuli or 2 Hz, 0.2 ms train of four (TOF) stimuli, was applied to the rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation, and the twitch height response was recorded mechanomyographically. The cumulative concentration effect and TOF ratio at each point of twitch depression after hexamethonium, lidocaine, alpha-bungarotoxin or decamethonium given were measured. The EC50 and EC95 of hexamethonium, lidocaine, alpha-bungarotoxin and decamethonium were calculated using an inhibitory sigmoid Emax model. In the experiment of each combination of two drugs, three points of the isobole for hexamethonium-lidocaine, hexamethonium-alpha-bungarotoxin and hexamethonium-decamethonium were established using ratios of 1 : 3, 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 of their EC50. Points on the line of theoretical additivity and 95% confidence intervals were calculated according to Tallarida et al. TOF ratios were observed at 75, 50 and 25% of the control twitch height value during each combination ratio of their EC50.
Significant deviations of points on the isobole from the line of additivity to the left were found at all EC50 ratios of hexamethonium-lidocaine (P < 0.05 respectively), that to the right was found at all EC50 ratios of a hexamethonium-alpha-bungarotoxin and hexamethonium-decamethonium (P < 0.05 respectively). The magnitude of TOF fade depended upon the mixed ratios for their EC50.
The interaction was found to be synergistic in the combination of hexamethonium- lidocaine, and antagonistic in the combination of hexamethonium-alpha-bungarotoxin and hexamethonium- decamethonium.
Key Words: Neuromuscular transmission: alpha-bungarotoxin; decamethonium; hexamethonium; lidocaine


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