Korean J Anesthesiol Search


Korean Journal of Anesthesiology 1998;35(3):438-445.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4097/kjae.1998.35.3.438   
Analgesic Effects of Intraperitoneal Morphine, Nalbuphine, and Ketorolac on the Formalin Test in Rats.
Jeong Yeon Hong, Youn Woo Lee, Young Suck Lee, Yong Taeck Nam
1Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, SunKyunKwan University, Seoul, Korea.
2Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.
The antinociceptive effect and the potency of systemically administered morphine (micro-agonist), nalbuphine (agonist-antagonist), and ketorolac (cyclooxygenase inhibitor) was examined in rats using the formalin test.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250~300 g) received intraperitoneal injection of either saline or 3 doses of each test drug (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg of morphine, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg of nalbuphine, and 10, 30, 100 mg/kg of ketorolac) 30 minutes prior to formalin injection. 50 microliter of 10% formalin was injected into the dorsal surface of the right hindpaw after 1 minute of 4% halothane induction. The construction of the dose-response curves and the determination of doses producing 50% maximum possible effect (ED50) were computed.
Intraperitoneal injection of morphine, nalbuphine and ketorolac resulted in the significant, dose-dependent supression of both phases, but nalbuphine has a ceiling effect at high dose for analgesia at the phase I of the formalin test. The rank order of relative potency in rats to the formalin test was nalbuphine (1.16)>morphine (1)>>ketorolac (0.1) in phase I, morphine (1)>nalbuphine (0.61)>>ketorolac (0.02) in phase IIa, and morphine (1)>nalbuphine (0.57)>>ketorolac (0.03) in phase IIb.
Comparing the systemic analgesic potency, nalbuphine and ketorolac will be needed in dosages 1.5 and 50 times that of morphine, respectively. These results suggest that ketorolac is not good enough as a single analgesic drug in preemptive analgesia for major surgery.
Key Words: Opioid, morphine; nalbuphine; Cyclooxygenase inhibitor, ketorolac; Formalin test


Browse all articles >

Editorial Office
101-3503, Lotte Castle President, 109 Mapo-daero, Mapo-gu, Seoul 04146, Korea
Tel: +82-2-792-5128    Fax: +82-2-792-4089    E-mail: journal@anesthesia.or.kr                

Copyright © 2024 by Korean Society of Anesthesiologists.

Developed in M2PI

Close layer
prev next