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Korean J Anesthesiol > Volume 19(1); 1986 > Article
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology 1986;19(1):26-35.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4097/kjae.1986.19.1.26   
Intraspinal Morphine Anesthesia for Open Heart Surgery.
Jae Kyu Jeon, Jung Gil Chung, Jung In Bae
Department of Anesthesiology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Taegu, Korea.
Abstract
Morphine anesthesia for cardiac surgery became very popular since Lowenstein at al. reported that 1.5~3.0mg/kg of morphine administered intravenously during ventilating with 100% oxygen did not alter cardiovascular dynamics in patients without heart disease and improved them in patients with aortic valve disease. However, morphine anesthesia soon appeared to cause significant disadvantages and many problems such as intraoperative awareness, histamine reactions marked increases in intraoperative blood pressure and prolonges postoperative respiratory depression. This study was primarily undertaken to evaluate the effects of intraspinal morphine anesthesia and compare them with the problems resulting from intravenous morphine anesthesia. We had 25 patients scheduled for open heart surgery. They were anesthetized mainly by intraspinal morphine and intravenous tranquilizers. Spinal tapping using Whitacre pencil point needle was performed in a sitting position at a level between L2-L4 and spinal fluid was drawn and mixed with morphine by a 10cc syringe and was administered rapidly with barbotage 3 times. Then the patient was given pentothal and anectin, and was intubated, followed by intravenous administration of Ativan or valium. The patient's respiration was controlled with 100% oxygen throughout the entire surgery. 1) The dosages of intraspinal morphine ranged between 6~10mg which was bridfly calculated by 0.1mg/kg with some variation according to heights and patients conditions. 2) Activan or valium was administered intravenously to eliminate intraoperative awareness. Ativan was preferred to valium for valve surgery. 3) Cardiovascular dynamics appeared stable throughout the intraoperative, recovery and ICUcare periods. 4) Respiratory depression seemed to be most serious between 12~16hour after intraspinal injection of morphine. Therfore this technique is recommended only in patients who need a controlled respiration for more than 12 hours because respiratory arrest occurs more commonly at that hour. 5) Respiratory care in the ICU was very effective satisfactory without any further medication for synchronisation between patient and respiratior becauses of the length of respiratory depression. 6) Somnolence lasts 24~36hours with no inadvertent reactions. 7) Well documented complications such as respiratory depression, pruritis and urinary retention were not problems in patients for open heart surgery. 8) The anesthesia induced by intraspinal morphine injection was satisfactory in anesthesia practice for open heart surgery. Therefore, we have called this procedure which has not been reported yet intraspinal morphine anesthesia.
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