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Korean J Anesthesiol > Volume 27(9); 1994 > Article
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology 1994;27(9):1139-1154.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4097/kjae.1994.27.9.1139   
Effect of Positive End-expiratory Pressure(PEEP) of Contra-lateral Lung on Redistribution of Pulmonary Blood Flow during One-lung Atelectasis.
Seung Woon Lim, Seong Deok Kim
1Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Korea.
2Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Korea.
Abstract
The normal response of the pulmonary vasculature to one-lung atelectasis is an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The mechanism of the increase in PVR is thought to be due almost entirely to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Regional HPV results in blood flow diversion from hypoxic regions to normoxic regions. The expected pulmonary shunt is thereby reduced and the arterial oxygen tension increased. PEEP improves the arterial oxygen tension as a result of increasing functional residual capacity (FRC) and decreasing intrapulmonary shunt. The aims of the present studies were to observe blood flow diversion from atelectatic lung to normoxic lung and to prove a sustained redistribution of pulmonary blood flow from ventilated with PEEP to atelectatic regions. This study evaluated the interactions between HPV and PEEP. Eight mongrel dogs were anesthetized with pentobarbital. Left pulmonary blood flow was measured with eletromagnetic flow probes following left lateral thoracotomy. Pulmonary arterial pressures, PCWP, systemic arterial pressures were measured via indwelling catheter. Cardiac output was determined by thermodilution in triplicate. The right lung was ventilated continuosly with 100% O2, while left lung was ventilated with 100 O2 (control phase), and unventilated for 60 min. of atelectasis. PEEP of 5 and 10 cmH2O was ed to the right lung. During two-lung ventilation with 100 oxygen, cardiac output was 2890+/-880 ml/min. (mean SD) and left pulmonary blqod flow was 1100+/-220 ml/min. Left lung atelectasis resulted in a reduction of the percent left blood flow compared with cardiac output from 41+/-10% to 29+/-7% at 15 min and to 22+/-9% at 60 min (p<0.05). The ratio of left pulmonary blood flow to mean pulmonary artery pressure decreased from 51+/-25 ml/min/ mmHg in control to 19+/-7 ml/min/mmHg at 60 min (p<0.05). Left pulmonary vascular resistance increased gradually (p<0.01). Arterial oxgen tension was the lowest at 15 min (165+/-66 mmHg) and increased subsequently (p<0.01). Intrapulmonary shunt was 27+/-6% in, control phase and abruptly increased to 37+/-6% at 15 min after atelectasis and decreased to 34+/-10% at 60 min. When 10 cmH2O PEEP was applied to the right hung during left lung atelectasis, the percent ratio of left pulmonary blood flow to cardiac output was significantly increased from 22+/-9% at 60 min of left lung atelectasis to 34+/-8% (p<0.05). Left pulmonary vascular resistance significantly decreased as compared with 45 and 60,min of left lung atelectasis (p<0.05). Arterial oxygen tension incresed by PEEP of 5 and 10 cmH to 257+/-74 mmHg and 252+/-92 mmHg compared with 164+/-65 mmHg and 177+/-28 mmHg at 15 and 30 min. of left lung atelectasis (p<0.05). The present study demonstrated that the response to acute atelectasis is a regional increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and a sustained diversion of blood flow away from the atelectatic lung. In this study, the application of 10 cmH2O PEEP resulted in a redistribution of pulmonary blood flow from normoxic lung to atelectatic lung and didn't affect arterial oxygenation. We conclude that when employing the technique of one-lung anesthesia, PEEP to improve oxygenstion should be cautiously applied and a search for the maximum oxygenation and a minimum redistribution might be started, in an attempt to find the optimal PEEP.
Key Words: Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction(HPV); One-lung ventilation; Atelectasis; Positive end-expiratory pressure(PEEP); Pulmonary vascular resistance(PVR)
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