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Korean Journal of Anesthesiology 1987;20(2):177-181.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4097/kjae.1987.20.2.177   
Safety and Efficacy of Epinephrine and Morphine Added to Bupivacaine for Lumbar Epidural Anesthesia in Obstetrics.
Yung Il Jo, Tae In Park, Chul Hong Park, Do Sung Wang
Department of Anesthesiology, Inje Medical College, Pusan, Korea.
The effects of epidural bupivacaine with and without epinephrine and morphine on mat-ernal blood pressure, newborn Apgar scores, and duration of analgesia were compared in 40 parturients during Cesarean section and post operative periods. Patients in group 1(n= 16) received 0.5% bupivacaine 27cc and group 2(n=10) recelved bupivacaine with epinephrine, group 3 (n= 10) received bupivacaine with morphine 3mg, and those in group 4(n= 10) received bupivacaine with epinephrine and morphine 3mg. Maternal hypotension occured less frequently in group 2 than in group 1 (p<0.001). Apgar scores were equally good (more than 8) all four groups. Duration of analgesia was longer in group 2(199.50+/-70.73min) than in group 1(133.50+/-50. 11min) but significantly longer in group 3(471.50+/-174.90) and in group 4(684.00+/-276. 92min) . It is concluded that adding epinephrine and morphine to bupivacaine during epidural anesthesia in the normal parturient has no adverse effects on either mother or neonate; and that it significantly prolongs the duration of analgesia and decreases the incidence of maternal hypotension.
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